US Constitution

We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union,establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the commondefence, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty toourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for theUnited States of America.

Article 1.

Section 1All legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of theUnited States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives.

Section 2The House of Representatives shall be composed of Members chosen every secondYear by the People of the several States, and the Electors in each State shallhave the Qualifications requisite for Electors of the most numerous Branch ofthe State Legislature.

No Person shall be a Representative who shall not have attained to the Age oftwenty five Years, and been seven Years a Citizen of the United States, and whoshall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of that State in which he shall bechosen.

Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the several Stateswhich may be included within this Union, according to their respective Numbers,which shall be determined by adding to the whole Number of free Persons,including those bound to Service for a Term of Years, and excluding Indians nottaxed, three fifths of all other Persons.

The actual Enumeration shall be made within three Years after the first Meetingof the Congress of the United States, and within every subsequent Term of tenYears, in such Manner as they shall by Law direct. The Number ofRepresentatives shall not exceed one for every thirty Thousand, but each Stateshall have at Least one Representative; and until such enumeration shall bemade, the State of New Hampshire shall be entitled to choose three,Massachusetts eight, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations one, Connecticutfive, New York six, New Jersey four, Pennsylvania eight, Delaware one, Marylandsix, Virginia ten, North Carolina five, South Carolina five and Georgia three.

When vacancies happen in the Representation from any State, the ExecutiveAuthority thereof shall issue Writs of Election to fill such Vacancies.

The House of Representatives shall choose their Speaker and other Officers; andshall have the sole Power of Impeachment.

Section 3The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from eachState, chosen by the Legislature thereof, for six Years; and each Senator shallhave one Vote.

Immediately after they shall be assembled in Consequence of the first Election,they shall be divided as equally as may be into three Classes. The Seats of theSenators of the first Class shall be vacated at the Expiration of the secondYear, of the second Class at the Expiration of the fourth Year, and of thethird Class at the Expiration of the sixth Year, so that one third may bechosen every second Year; and if Vacancies happen by Resignation, or otherwise,during the Recess of the Legislature of any State, the Executive thereof maymake temporary Appointments until the next Meeting of the Legislature, whichshall then fill such Vacancies.

No person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained to the Age of thirtyYears, and been nine Years a Citizen of the United States, and who shall not,when elected, be an Inhabitant of that State for which he shall be chosen.

The Vice President of the United States shall be President of the Senate, butshall have no Vote, unless they be equally divided.

The Senate shall choose their other Officers, and also a President pro tempore,in the absence of the Vice President, or when he shall exercise the Office ofPresident of the United States.

The Senate shall have the sole Power to try all Impeachments. When sitting forthat Purpose, they shall be on Oath or Affirmation. When the President of theUnited States is tried, the Chief Justice shall preside: And no Person shall beconvicted without the Concurrence of two thirds of the Members present.

Judgment in Cases of Impeachment shall not extend further than to removal fromOffice, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any Office of honor, Trust orProfit under the United States: but the Party convicted shall nevertheless beliable and subject to Indictment, Trial, Judgment and Punishment, according toLaw.

Section 4The Times, Places and Manner of holding Elections for Senators andRepresentatives, shall be prescribed in each State by the Legislature thereof;but the Congress may at any time by Law make or alter such Regulations, exceptas to the Place of Choosing Senators.

The Congress shall assemble at least once in every Year, and such Meeting shallbe on the first Monday in December, unless they shall by Law appoint adifferent Day.

Section 5Each House shall be the Judge of the Elections, Returns and Qualifications ofits own Members, and a Majority of each shall constitute a Quorum to doBusiness; but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day, and may beauthorized to compel the Attendance of absent Members, in such Manner, andunder such Penalties as each House may provide.

Each House may determine the Rules of its Proceedings, punish its Members fordisorderly Behavior, and, with the Concurrence of two-thirds, expel a Member.

Each House shall keep a Journal of its Proceedings, and from time to timepublish the same, excepting such Parts as may in their Judgment requireSecrecy; and the Yeas and Nays of the Members of either House on any questionshall, at the Desire of one fifth of those Present, be entered on the Journal.

Neither House, during the Session of Congress, shall, without the Consent ofthe other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other Place than thatin which the two Houses shall be sitting.

Section 6The Senators and Representatives shall receive a Compensation for theirServices, to be ascertained by Law, and paid out of the Treasury of the UnitedStates. They shall in all Cases, except Treason, Felony and Breach of thePeace, be privileged from Arrest during their Attendance at the Session oftheir respective Houses, and in going to and returning from the same; and forany Speech or Debate in either House, they shall not be questioned in any otherPlace.

No Senator or Representative shall, during the Time for which he was elected,be appointed to any civil Office under the Authority of the United States whichshall have been created, or the Emoluments whereof shall have been increasedduring such time; and no Person holding any Office under the United States,shall be a Member of either House during his Continuance in Office.

Section 7All bills for raising Revenue shall originate in the House of Representatives;but the Senate may propose or concur with Amendments as on other Bills.

Every Bill which shall have passed the House of Representatives and the Senate,shall, before it become a Law, be presented to the President of the UnitedStates; If he approve he shall sign it, but if not he shall return it, with hisObjections to that House in which it shall have originated, who shall enter theObjections at large on their Journal, and proceed to reconsider it. If aftersuch Reconsideration two thirds of that House shall agree to pass the Bill, itshall be sent, together with the Objections, to the other House, by which itshall likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by two thirds of that House, itshall become a Law. But in all such Cases the Votes of both Houses shall bedetermined by Yeas and Nays, and the Names of the Persons voting for andagainst the Bill shall be entered on the Journal of each House respectively. Ifany Bill shall not be returned by the President within ten Days (Sundaysexcepted) after it shall have been presented to him, the Same shall be a Law,in like Manner as if he had signed it, unless the Congress by their Adjournmentprevent its Return, in which Case it shall not be a Law.

Every Order, Resolution, or Vote to which the Concurrence of the Senate andHouse of Representatives may be necessary (except on a question of Adjournment)shall be presented to the President of the United States; and before the Sameshall take Effect, shall be approved by him, or being disapproved by him, shallbe repassed by two thirds of the Senate and House of Representatives, accordingto the Rules and Limitations prescribed in the Case of a Bill.

Section 8The Congress shall have Power To lay and collect Taxes, Duties, Imposts andExcises, to pay the Debts and provide for the common Defence and generalWelfare of the United States; but all Duties, Imposts and Excises shall beuniform throughout the United States;

To borrow money on the credit of the United States;

To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several States, andwith the Indian Tribes;

To establish an uniform Rule of Naturalization, and uniform Laws on the subjectof Bankruptcies throughout the United States;

To coin Money, regulate the Value thereof, and of foreign Coin, and fix theStandard of Weights and Measures;

To provide for the Punishment of counterfeiting the Securities and current Coinof the United States;

To establish Post Offices and Post Roads;

To promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts, by securing for limitedTimes to Authors and Inventors the exclusive Right to their respective Writingsand Discoveries;

To constitute Tribunals inferior to the supreme Court;

To define and punish Piracies and Felonies committed on the high Seas, andOffenses against the Law of Nations;

To declare War, grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal, and make Rules concerningCaptures on Land and Water;

To raise and support Armies, but no Appropriation of Money to that Use shall befor a longer Term than two Years;

To provide and maintain a Navy;

To make Rules for the Government and Regulation of the land and naval Forces;

To provide for calling forth the Militia to execute the Laws of the Union,suppress Insurrections and repel Invasions;

To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining, the Militia, and forgoverning such Part of them as may be employed in the Service of the UnitedStates, reserving to the States respectively, the Appointment of the Officers,and the Authority of training the Militia according to the disciplineprescribed by Congress;

To exercise exclusive Legislation in all Cases whatsoever, over such District(not exceeding ten Miles square) as may, by Cession of particular States, andthe acceptance of Congress, become the Seat of the Government of the UnitedStates, and to exercise like Authority over all Places purchased by the Consentof the Legislature of the State in which the Same shall be, for the Erection ofForts, Magazines, Arsenals, dock-Yards, and other needful Buildings; And

To make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying intoExecution the foregoing Powers, and all other Powers vested by thisConstitution in the Government of the United States, or in any Department orOfficer thereof.

Section 9The Migration or Importation of such Persons as any of the States now existingshall think proper to admit, shall not be prohibited by the Congress prior tothe Year one thousand eight hundred and eight, but a tax or duty may be imposedon such Importation, not exceeding ten dollars for each Person.

The privilege of the Writ of Habeas Corpus shall not be suspended, unless whenin Cases of Rebellion or Invasion the public Safety may require it.

No Bill of Attainder or ex post facto Law shall be passed.

No capitation, or other direct, Tax shall be laid, unless in Proportion to theCensus or Enumeration herein before directed to be taken.

No Tax or Duty shall be laid on Articles exported from any State.

No Preference shall be given by any Regulation of Commerce or Revenue to thePorts of one State over those of another: nor shall Vessels bound to, or from,one State, be obliged to enter, clear, or pay Duties in another.

No Money shall be drawn from the Treasury, but in Consequence of Appropriationsmade by Law; and a regular Statement and Account of the Receipts andExpenditures of all public Money shall be published from time to time.

No Title of Nobility shall be granted by the United States: And no Personholding any Office of Profit or Trust under them, shall, without the Consent ofthe Congress, accept of any present, Emolument, Office, or Title, of any kindwhatever, from any King, Prince or foreign State.

Section 10No State shall enter into any Treaty, Alliance, or Confederation; grant Lettersof Marque and Reprisal; coin Money; emit Bills of Credit; make any Thing butgold and silver Coin a Tender in Payment of Debts; pass any Bill of Attainder,ex post facto Law, or Law impairing the Obligation of Contracts, or grant anyTitle of Nobility.

No State shall, without the Consent of the Congress, lay any Imposts or Dutieson Imports or Exports, except what may be absolutely necessary for executingits inspection Laws: and the net Produce of all Duties and Imposts, laid byany State on Imports or Exports, shall be for the Use of the Treasury of theUnited States; and all such Laws shall be subject to the Revision and Controlof the Congress.

No State shall, without the Consent of Congress, lay any duty of Tonnage, keepTroops, or Ships of War in time of Peace, enter into any Agreement or Compactwith another State, or with a foreign Power, or engage in War, unless actuallyinvaded, or in such imminent Danger as will not admit of delay.

Article 2.

Section 1The executive Power shall be vested in a President of the United States ofAmerica. He shall hold his Office during the Term of four Years, and, togetherwith the Vice-President chosen for the same Term, be elected, as follows:

Each State shall appoint, in such Manner as the Legislature thereof may direct,a Number of Electors, equal to the whole Number of Senators and Representativesto which the State may be entitled in the Congress: but no Senator orRepresentative, or Person holding an Office of Trust or Profit under the UnitedStates, shall be appointed an Elector.

The Electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote by Ballot for twopersons, of whom one at least shall not lie an Inhabitant of the same Statewith themselves. And they shall make a List of all the Persons voted for, andof the Number of Votes for each; which List they shall sign and certify, andtransmit sealed to the Seat of the Government of the United States, directed tothe President of the Senate. The President of the Senate shall, in the Presenceof the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the Certificates, and theVotes shall then be counted. The Person having the greatest Number of Votesshall be the President, if such Number be a Majority of the whole Number ofElectors appointed; and if there be more than one who have such Majority, andhave an equal Number of Votes, then the House of Representatives shallimmediately choose by Ballot one of them for President; and if no Person have aMajority, then from the five highest on the List the said House shall in likeManner choose the President. But in choosing the President, the Votes shall betaken by States, the Representation from each State having one Vote; a quorumfor this Purpose shall consist of a Member or Members from two-thirds of theStates, and a Majority of all the States shall be necessary to a Choice. Inevery Case, after the Choice of the President, the Person having the greatestNumber of Votes of the Electors shall be the Vice President. But if thereshould remain two or more who have equal Votes, the Senate shall choose fromthem by Ballot the Vice-President.

The Congress may determine the Time of choosing the Electors, and the Day onwhich they shall give their Votes; which Day shall be the same throughout theUnited States.

No person except a natural born Citizen, or a Citizen of the United States, atthe time of the Adoption of this Constitution, shall be eligible to the Officeof President; neither shall any Person be eligible to that Office who shall nothave attained to the Age of thirty-five Years, and been fourteen Years aResident within the United States.

In Case of the Removal of the President from Office, or of his Death,Resignation, or Inability to discharge the Powers and Duties of the saidOffice, the same shall devolve on the Vice President, and the Congress may byLaw provide for the Case of Removal, Death, Resignation or Inability, both ofthe President and Vice President, declaring what Officer shall then act asPresident, and such Officer shall act accordingly, until the Disability beremoved, or a President shall be elected.

The President shall, at stated Times, receive for his Services, a Compensation,which shall neither be increased nor diminished during the Period for which heshall have been elected, and he shall not receive within that Period any otherEmolument from the United States, or any of them.

Before he enter on the Execution of his Office, he shall take the followingOath or Affirmation:

“I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the Office ofPresident of the United States, and will to the best of my Ability, preserve,protect and defend the Constitution of the United States.”

Section 2The President shall be Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy of the UnitedStates, and of the Militia of the several States, when called into the actualService of the United States; he may require the Opinion, in writing, of theprincipal Officer in each of the executive Departments, upon any subjectrelating to the Duties of their respective Offices, and he shall have Power toGrant Reprieves and Pardons for Offenses against the United States, except inCases of Impeachment.

He shall have Power, by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, to makeTreaties, provided two thirds of the Senators present concur; and he shallnominate, and by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, shall appointAmbassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, Judges of the supreme Court,and all other Officers of the United States, whose Appointments are not hereinotherwise provided for, and which shall be established by Law: but the Congressmay by Law vest the Appointment of such inferior Officers, as they thinkproper, in the President alone, in the Courts of Law, or in the Heads ofDepartments.

The President shall have Power to fill up all Vacancies that may happen duringthe Recess of the Senate, by granting Commissions which shall expire at the Endof their next Session.

Section 3He shall from time to time give to the Congress Information of the State of theUnion, and recommend to their Consideration such Measures as he shall judgenecessary and expedient; he may, on extraordinary Occasions, convene bothHouses, or either of them, and in Case of Disagreement between them, withRespect to the Time of Adjournment, he may adjourn them to such Time as heshall think proper; he shall receive Ambassadors and other public Ministers; heshall take Care that the Laws be faithfully executed, and shall Commission allthe Officers of the United States.

Section 4The President, Vice President and all civil Officers of the United States,shall be removed from Office on Impeachment for, and Conviction of, Treason,Bribery, or other high Crimes and Misdemeanors.

Article 3.

Section 1The judicial Power of the United States, shall be vested in one supreme Court,and in such inferior Courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain andestablish. The Judges, both of the supreme and inferior Courts, shall holdtheir Offices during good Behavior, and shall, at stated Times, receive fortheir Services a Compensation which shall not be diminished during theirContinuance in Office.

Section 2The judicial Power shall extend to all Cases, in Law and Equity, arising underthis Constitution, the Laws of the United States, and Treaties made, or whichshall be made, under their Authority; to all Cases affecting Ambassadors, otherpublic Ministers and Consuls; to all Cases of admiralty and maritimeJurisdiction; to Controversies to which the United States shall be a Party; toControversies between two or more States; between a State and Citizens ofanother State; between Citizens of different States; between Citizens of thesame State claiming Lands under Grants of different States, and between aState, or the Citizens thereof, and foreign States, Citizens or Subjects.

In all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, andthose in which a State shall be Party, the supreme Court shall have originalJurisdiction. In all the other Cases before mentioned, the supreme Court shallhave appellate Jurisdiction, both as to Law and Fact, with such Exceptions, andunder such Regulations as the Congress shall make.

The Trial of all Crimes, except in Cases of Impeachment, shall be by Jury; andsuch Trial shall be held in the State where the said Crimes shall have beencommitted; but when not committed within any State, the Trial shall be at suchPlace or Places as the Congress may by Law have directed.

Section 3Treason against the United States, shall consist only in levying War againstthem, or in adhering to their Enemies, giving them Aid and Comfort. No Personshall be convicted of Treason unless on the Testimony of two Witnesses to thesame overt Act, or on Confession in open Court.

The Congress shall have power to declare the Punishment of Treason, but noAttainder of Treason shall work Corruption of Blood, or Forfeiture exceptduring the Life of the Person attainted.

Article 4.

Section 1Full Faith and Credit shall be given in each State to the public Acts, Records,and judicial Proceedings of every other State. And the Congress may by generalLaws prescribe the Manner in which such Acts, Records and Proceedings shall beproved, and the Effect thereof.

Section 2The Citizens of each State shall be entitled to all Privileges and Immunitiesof Citizens in the several States.

A Person charged in any State with Treason, Felony, or other Crime, who shallflee from Justice, and be found in another State, shall on demand of theexecutive Authority of the State from which he fled, be delivered up, to beremoved to the State having Jurisdiction of the Crime.

No Person held to Service or Labour in one State, under the Laws thereof,escaping into another, shall, in Consequence of any Law or Regulation therein,be discharged from such Service or Labour, But shall be delivered up on Claimof the Party to whom such Service or Labour may be due.

Section 3New States may be admitted by the Congress into this Union; but no new Statesshall be formed or erected within the Jurisdiction of any other State; nor anyState be formed by the Junction of two or more States, or parts of States,without the Consent of the Legislatures of the States concerned as well as ofthe Congress.

The Congress shall have Power to dispose of and make all needful Rules andRegulations respecting the Territory or other Property belonging to the UnitedStates; and nothing in this Constitution shall be so construed as to Prejudiceany Claims of the United States, or of any particular State.

Section 4The United States shall guarantee to every State in this Union a RepublicanForm of Government, and shall protect each of them against Invasion; and onApplication of the Legislature, or of the Executive (when the Legislaturecannot be convened) against domestic Violence.

Article 5.

The Congress, whenever two thirds of both Houses shall deem it necessary, shallpropose Amendments to this Constitution, or, on the Application of theLegislatures of two thirds of the several States, shall call a Convention forproposing Amendments, which, in either Case, shall be valid to all Intents andPurposes, as part of this Constitution, when ratified by the Legislatures ofthree fourths of the several States, or by Conventions in three fourthsthereof, as the one or the other Mode of Ratification may be proposed by theCongress; Provided that no Amendment which may be made prior to the Year Onethousand eight hundred and eight shall in any Manner affect the first andfourth Clauses in the Ninth Section of the first Article; and that no State,without its Consent, shall be deprived of its equal Suffrage in the Senate.

Article 6.

All Debts contracted and Engagements entered into, before the Adoption of thisConstitution, shall be as valid against the United States under thisConstitution, as under the Confederation.

This Constitution, and the Laws of the United States which shall be made inPursuance thereof; and all Treaties made, or which shall be made, under theAuthority of the United States, shall be the supreme Law of the Land; and theJudges in every State shall be bound thereby, any Thing in the Constitution orLaws of any State to the Contrary notwithstanding.

The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the Members of theseveral State Legislatures, and all executive and judicial Officers, both ofthe United States and of the several States, shall be bound by Oath orAffirmation, to support this Constitution; but no religious Test shall ever berequired as a Qualification to any Office or public Trust under the UnitedStates.

Article 7.

The Ratification of the Conventions of nine States, shall be sufficient for theEstablishment of this Constitution between the States so ratifying the Same.

Done in Convention by the Unanimous Consent of the States present theSeventeenth Day of September in the Year of our Lord one thousand seven hundredand Eighty seven and of the Independence of the United States of America theTwelfth. In Witness whereof We have hereunto subscribed our Names.

George Washington – President and deputy from Virginia

New Hampshire – John Langdon, Nicholas Gilman

Massachusetts – Nathaniel Gorham, Rufus King

Connecticut – William Samuel Johnson, Roger Sherman

New York – Alexander Hamilton

New Jersey – William Livingston, David Brearley, William Paterson, JonathanDayton

Pennsylvania – Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Mifflin, Robert Morris, George Clymer,Thomas Fitzsimons, Jared Ingersoll, James Wilson, Gouvernour Morris

Delaware – George Read, Gunning Bedford Jr., John Dickinson, Richard Bassett,Jacob Broom

Maryland – James McHenry, Daniel of St Thomas Jenifer, Daniel Carroll

Virginia – John Blair, James Madison Jr.

North Carolina – William Blount, Richard Dobbs Spaight, Hugh Williamson

South Carolina – John Rutledge, Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, Charles Pinckney,Pierce Butler

Georgia – William Few, Abraham Baldwin

Attest: William Jackson, Secretary

Amendment 1Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, orprohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, orof the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petitionthe Government for a redress of grievances.

Amendment 2A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, theright of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed.

Amendment 3No Soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, without theconsent of the Owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed bylaw.

Amendment 4The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, andeffects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, andno Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath oraffirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and thepersons or things to be seized.

Amendment 5No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime,unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arisingin the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service in timeof War or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offenseto be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in anycriminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life,liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property betaken for public use, without just compensation.

Amendment 6In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy andpublic trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crimeshall have been committed, which district shall have been previouslyascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of theaccusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsoryprocess for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the Assistance ofCounsel for his defence.

Amendment 7In Suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twentydollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by ajury, shall be otherwise re-examined in any Court of the United States, thanaccording to the rules of the common law.

Amendment 8Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor crueland unusual punishments inflicted.

Amendment 9The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construedto deny or disparage others retained by the people.

Amendment 10The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, norprohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or tothe people.

Amendment 11The Judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to extend to anysuit in law or equity, commenced or prosecuted against one of the United Statesby Citizens of another State, or by Citizens or Subjects of any Foreign State.

Amendment 12The Electors shall meet in their respective states, and vote by ballot forPresident and Vice-President, one of whom, at least, shall not be an inhabitantof the same state with themselves; they shall name in their ballots the personvoted for as President, and in distinct ballots the person voted for asVice-President, and they shall make distinct lists of all persons voted for asPresident, and of all persons voted for as Vice-President and of the number ofvotes for each, which lists they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed tothe seat of the government of the United States, directed to the President ofthe Senate;

The President of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House ofRepresentatives, open all the certificates and the votes shall then be counted;

The person having the greatest Number of votes for President, shall be thePresident, if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electorsappointed; and if no person have such majority, then from the persons havingthe highest numbers not exceeding three on the list of those voted for asPresident, the House of Representatives shall choose immediately, by ballot,the President. But in choosing the President, the votes shall be taken bystates, the representation from each state having one vote; a quorum for thispurpose shall consist of a member or members from two-thirds of the states, anda majority of all the states shall be necessary to a choice. And if the Houseof Representatives shall not choose a President whenever the right of choiceshall devolve upon them, before the fourth day of March next following, thenthe Vice-President shall act as President, as in the case of the death or otherconstitutional disability of the President.

The person having the greatest number of votes as Vice-President, shall be theVice-President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electorsappointed, and if no person have a majority, then from the two highest numberson the list, the Senate shall choose the Vice-President; a quorum for thepurpose shall consist of two-thirds of the whole number of Senators, and amajority of the whole number shall be necessary to a choice. But no personconstitutionally ineligible to the office of President shall be eligible tothat of Vice-President of the United States.

Amendment 131. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crimewhereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the UnitedStates, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.2

. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriatelegislation.

Amendment 141. All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to thejurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the Statewherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridgethe privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall anyState deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process oflaw; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of thelaws.2

. Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States according totheir respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each State,excluding Indians not taxed. But when the right to vote at any election for thechoice of electors for President and Vice-President of the United States,Representatives in Congress, the Executive and Judicial officers of a State, orthe members of the Legislature thereof, is denied to any of the maleinhabitants of such State, being twenty-one years of age, and citizens of theUnited States, or in any way abridged, except for participation in rebellion,or other crime, the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in theproportion which the number of such male citizens shall bear to the wholenumber of male citizens twenty-one years of age in such State.

3. No person shall be a Senator or Representative in Congress, or elector ofPresident and Vice-President, or hold any office, civil or military, under theUnited States, or under any State, who, having previously taken an oath, as amember of Congress, or as an officer of the United States, or as a member ofany State legislature, or as an executive or judicial officer of any State, tosupport the Constitution of the United States, shall have engaged ininsurrection or rebellion against the same, or given aid or comfort to theenemies thereof. But Congress may by a vote of two-thirds of each House, removesuch disability.

4. The validity of the public debt of the United States, authorized by law,including debts incurred for payment of pensions and bounties for services insuppressing insurrection or rebellion, shall not be questioned. But neither theUnited States nor any State shall assume or pay any debt or obligation incurredin aid of insurrection or rebellion against the United States, or any claim forthe loss or emancipation of any slave; but all such debts, obligations andclaims shall be held illegal and void.

5. The Congress shall have power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, theprovisions of this article.

Amendment 151. The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied orabridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, orprevious condition of servitude.2

. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriatelegislation.

Amendment 16The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, fromwhatever source derived, without apportionment among the several States, andwithout regard to any census or enumeration.

Amendment 17The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from eachState, elected by the people thereof, for six years; and each Senator shallhave one vote. The electors in each State shall have the qualificationsrequisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the State legislatures.

When vacancies happen in the representation of any State in the Senate, theexecutive authority of such State shall issue writs of election to fill suchvacancies: Provided, That the legislature of any State may empower theexecutive thereof to make temporary appointments until the people fill thevacancies by election as the legislature may direct.

This amendment shall not be so construed as to affect the election or term ofany Senator chosen before it becomes valid as part of the Constitution.

Amendment 181. After one year from the ratification of this article the manufacture, sale,or transportation of intoxicating liquors within, the importation thereof into,or the exportation thereof from the United States and all territory subject tothe jurisdiction thereof for beverage purposes is hereby prohibited.2

. The Congress and the several States shall have concurrent power to enforcethis article by appropriate legislation.

3. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as anamendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of the several States, asprovided in the Constitution, within seven years from the date of thesubmission hereof to the States by the Congress.

Amendment 19The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied orabridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex.

Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

Amendment 201. The terms of the President and Vice President shall end at noon on the 20thday of January, and the terms of Senators and Representatives at noon on the 3dday of January, of the years in which such terms would have ended if thisarticle had not been ratified; and the terms of their successors shall thenbegin.2

. The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year, and such meetingshall begin at noon on the 3d day of January, unless they shall by law appointa different day.

3. If, at the time fixed for the beginning of the term of the President, thePresident elect shall have died, the Vice President elect shall becomePresident. If a President shall not have been chosen before the time fixed forthe beginning of his term, or if the President elect shall have failed toqualify, then the Vice President elect shall act as President until a Presidentshall have qualified; and the Congress may by law provide for the case whereinneither a President elect nor a Vice President elect shall have qualified,declaring who shall then act as President, or the manner in which one who is toact shall be selected, and such person shall act accordingly until a Presidentor Vice President shall have qualified.

4. The Congress may by law provide for the case of the death of any of thepersons from whom the House of Representatives may choose a President wheneverthe right of choice shall have devolved upon them, and for the case of thedeath of any of the persons from whom the Senate may choose a Vice Presidentwhenever the right of choice shall have devolved upon them.

5. Sections 1 and 2 shall take effect on the 15th day of October following theratification of this article.

6. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as anamendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of three-fourths of theseveral States within seven years from the date of its submission.

Amendment 211. The eighteenth article of amendment to the Constitution of the United Statesis hereby repealed.

The transportation or importation into any State, Territory, or possessionof the United States for delivery or use therein of intoxicating liquors, inviolation of the laws thereof, is hereby prohibited.

3. The article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as anamendment to the Constitution by conventions in the several States, as providedin the Constitution, within seven years from the date of the submission hereofto the States by the Congress.

Amendment 221. No person shall be elected to the office of the President more than twice,and no person who has held the office of President, or acted as President, formore than two years of a term to which some other person was elected Presidentshall be elected to the office of the President more than once. But thisArticle shall not apply to any person holding the office of President, when thisArticle was proposed by the Congress, and shall not prevent any person who maybe holding the office of President, or acting as President, during the termwithin which this Article becomes operative from holding the office ofPresident or acting as President during the remainder of such term.

This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as anamendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of three-fourths of theseveral States within seven years from the date of its submission to the Statesby the Congress.

Amendment 231. The District constituting the seat of Government of the United States shallappoint in such manner as the Congress may direct: A number of electors ofPresident and Vice President equal to the whole number of Senators andRepresentatives in Congress to which the District would be entitled if it werea State, but in no event more than the least populous State; they shall be inaddition to those appointed by the States, but they shall be considered, forthe purposes of the election of President and Vice President, to be electorsappointed by a State; and they shall meet in the District and perform suchduties as provided by the twelfth article of amendment.

The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriatelegislation.

Amendment 241. The right of citizens of the United States to vote in any primary or otherelection for President or Vice President, for electors for President orVice President, or for Senator or Representative in Congress, shall not bedenied or abridged by the United States or any State by reason of failure topay any poll tax or other tax.

The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriatelegislation.

Amendment 251. In case of the removal of the President from office or of his death orresignation, the Vice President shall become President.

Whenever there is a vacancy in the office of the Vice President, thePresident shall nominate a Vice President who shall take office uponconfirmation by a majority vote of both Houses of Congress.

3. Whenever the President transmits to the President pro tempore of the Senateand the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that heis unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, and until hetransmits to them a written declaration to the contrary, such powers and dutiesshall be discharged by the Vice President as Acting President.

4. Whenever the Vice President and a majority of either the principal officersof the executive departments or of such other body as Congress may by lawprovide, transmit to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker ofthe House of Representatives their written declaration that the President isunable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice Presidentshall immediately assume the powers and duties of the office as ActingPresident.

Thereafter, when the President transmits to the President pro tempore of theSenate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declarationthat no inability exists, he shall resume the powers and duties of his officeunless the Vice President and a majority of either the principal officers ofthe executive department or of such other body as Congress may by law provide,transmit within four days to the President pro tempore of the Senate and theSpeaker of the House of Representatives their written declaration that thePresident is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office. ThereuponCongress shall decide the issue, assembling within forty eight hours for thatpurpose if not in session. If the Congress, within twenty one days afterreceipt of the latter written declaration, or, if Congress is not in session,within twenty one days after Congress is required to assemble, determines bytwo thirds vote of both Houses that the President is unable to discharge thepowers and duties of his office, the Vice President shall continue to dischargethe same as Acting President; otherwise, the President shall resume the powersand duties of his office.

Amendment 261. The right of citizens of the United States, who are eighteen years of age orolder, to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by anyState on account of age. 2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

Amendment 27No law, varying the compensation for the services of the Senators andRepresentatives, shall take effect, until an election of Representatives shallhave intervened.

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